De orbibus libri quattuor. Alessandro ACHILLINI.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.
De orbibus libri quattuor.

De orbibus libri quattuor.

Bologna, Benedictus Hectoris, 1498. In-folio. [304 x 210 mm] Collation : 51, (1) ff., [a-h6, i4]. Veau brun, dos à nerfs, encadrements sur les plats. (Reliure récente dans le genre de l'époque.). ____ Première édition de ce très rare incunable d'astronomie. Alessandro Achillini (1463-1512), professeur à l'Université de Bologne, a très certainement compté parmi ces élèves Nicolas Copernic qui étudia à Bologne de 1496 à 1501. Surnommé le "second Aristote", Achillini se livre à une attaque virulente de l'astronomie de Ptolémée. Partisan d'Averroes, de nombreuses fois cité dans cet ouvrage, il expose le systéme des sphères homocentriques. Les efforts de tous les "Averroïstes" de cette période pour restaurer l'astronomie des sphères homocentriques a été un stimulus certain pour le progrès de l'astronomie. Ils habituèrent les esprits à ne plus considérer le système géocentrique de Ptolémée comme le seul possible, ni comme le meilleur. Cet ouvrage a donc été publié durant le séjour de Copernic à Bologne. C'est aussi à Bologne que Copernic fait sa première observation astronomique connue, une occultation d'Aldébaran, en 1497 avec Domenica Mara Novara. Exemplaire annoté par un érudit de l'époque. On trouve une trentaine de notes à la plume dans les marges et de très nombreux passages soulignés. Ces notes qui corrigent le texte, ajoutent quelques mots à l'aide de renvois ou donnent des commentaires. Ce volume a donc été lu et étudié avec beaucoup d'attention par un savant de l'époque, dont l'identité serait intéressante à découvrir. Cachet ou signature gratté sur le titre. Très rare. Goff A-37. GW 191. BMC XII, 60. ISTC : ia00037000. Klebs 7.1. *-------* First edition of this very are astronomical incunabula. Alessandro Achillini, "the second Aristotle", had most probably Nicolas Copernicus amongst his pupils. "Copernicus would have been aware of the presence at Bologna of one of the most celebrated philosophers in Italy, 'the second Aristotle', Alessandro Achillini who published a scathing Averroist attack on Ptolemy while Copernics was resident at the university. In his 'De orbibus", published at Bologna in 1498, Achillini presents Averroes's three main routes to negative conclusions about Ptolemy. The first is from the uniqueness of the centre of the world - the Ptolameic tradition introduces unacceptably many different centres. The second is from the nature of the celestials bodies, which could not be perfect spheres if they were made into orbs corresponding to epycycles and eccentrics, and would also require the introduction of physically superfluous bodies to exclude vacua. A third group of arguments begins from the consideration that circular motions define a single centre. (...) Achillini proposes to save the planetary motions, and explain eclipses and the waxing of the Moon 'without penetration of bodies, whithout vacua', and 'without divisions' in the substances of heavens. Before giving a basic homocentric construction of nested spheres with offset axes, he sketches theoricae for the planets, Sun and Moon. These are not detailed models but are largely concerned with the times of revolution for the major homocentric spheres. Achillini concludes with a rebuttal of opposing positions conducted in the manner of a disputation, for exemple that stationnary points and retrogressions can only be accommodated by epicycles or eccentrics. His discussion does not employ mathematical arguments like those found in the Ptolameic tradition, but he shows himself to be well versed in the technical details of Ptolemaic astronomy which he attacks broadly and at its foundations. At least one recent writer [Mario di Bono] has suggested that Copernicus may have been obliged to attend Achillini's lectures. We may adduce further reasons from the changes in Copernicus' s course of study. (...) The challenge of reconciling astronomy and natural philosophy was the central challenge of the Averroists to the Ptolemaic tradition. This challenge was longstanding, but it was raised particularly acutely and by highly visible and prestigious figures in Italy during Copernicus' s education. Copernicus 's subsequent work should therefore be seen interalia as an attempt to meet the Averroist challenge to create a realist astronomy." P. Barker, Copernicus and the Critics of Ptolemy, Journal for the History of Astronomy, (1999) p.343. First edition of this very rare book of astronomy. Annotated copy by a scholar with about thirty notes in the margins. Item #12824

Price: 28,000.00 €

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